The Language of Colour: Cinematography || Vittorio Storaro
Legendary cinematographer Vittorio Storaro reveals his discovery of colour and light.
What's The Hardest Thing About Your Job In The Film Industry || Spotlight
We interviewed a range if people from the film industry, from cinematographers to producers to editors to find out what is the hardest thing about their job.
Cinematographers: Rachel Morrison, Ben Davis, John Toll, Phedon Papamichael, Claudio Miranda, Daniel Pearl, Stuart Dryburg, Guillermo Navarro, Vittorio Storaro, Dan Laustsen, Christopher Doyle
Director: Phillip Noyce
Production Designer: Adam Stockhausen
Producer: Paula Wagner
Editor: Paul Hirsch
Working with Ryan Coogler on Black Panther || Rachel Morrison || Case Study
This week we welcome Rachel Morrison to the channel. She has worked on such films as Mudbound, Dope and Fruitvale Station. In this episode we talk about what it was like working on Black Panther and working with Ryan Coogler.
The Cinematography behind Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri || Ben Davis || Case Study
We welcome Ben Davis to the channel who you may know from working on films such as Doctor Strange, Before I Go to Sleep, and Avengers: Age of Ultron. In this episode he talks to us about the cinematography on the film Three Billboards and why he shot in the style he did, and how this effected the story.
How to Shoot Documentaries || Mike Eley || Masterclass
This week Mike Eley talks about some of the documentaries that he has been involved in and different steps of the production, and gives tips on what he has learnt.
How does it affect you traveling to different locations to shoot documentaries?
What equipment would you take on a shoot?
How do you shoot an interview?
What would be a typical lighting set up that you would use for an interview?
How involved are you with the post production?
Lighting Tips: Bounce and Negative Fill || Bradford Young || Spotlight
This week Bradford Young talks about the different types of lighting he has used in different films, including Arrival and Ain't Them Bodies Saints. Get an in depth explanation of his favourite lighting tips he uses.
Why I Shot Period Films with Digital Cameras || Ben Smithard || Spotlight
In this episode we talk to Ben Smithard about how he has shot films such as My Week with Marilyn and Belle, and why he shot on digital opposed to film.
Spotlight || Geoff Boyle || Pretty Pictures Not Accurate Pictures
In this episode Geoff Boyle discusses some of his experiences in the industry and how he has shot older women to make them look more appealing and why he would rather have control over accuracy.
Spotlight || Cinematography Inspirations || Micro Salon
We speak to cinematographers at Micro Salon and discuss what inspires them, and what influences them on the films they shoot.
Spotlight || Primes or Zooms? || Laurie Rose
We speak to Laurie Rose about which is better? Primes or Zooms? He gives opinion on which to use and which would be most appropriate to be use on different filmings.
Case Study || Wolf Hall || Gavin Finney
In this episode we interviewed Gavin Finney and talked about the filming of Wolf Hall, and how the look of the show was achieved
Spotlight || Importance of Location || Ben Smithard
In this episode Ben Smithard talks about how the location can add to a film and how the location can affect a film.
Deconstructing Cinematography || Sexy Beast || Ben Smithard (Part 2)
Here is another Deconstructing Cinematography episode in which Ben Smithard analyses the cult classic Sexy beast.
Spotlight || Adapting to Change on Film Sets || Bradford Young
We welcome Bradford Young to the channel, you may know him for his work on such films as Arrival, Selma and A most Violent Year. In this episode he talks about the upcoming Han Solo movie and how he has had to face the challenges of changing directors in the middle of the shooting process.
Digital Sensors and Dynamic Range (Part 1) || Spotlight || Geoff Boyle
Geoff Boyle reveals the essential information behind digital sensors and explains how information is being processed by your camera.
How to manage Post Production (Part 1) || The Film Production Process
Top cinematographers discuss what happens when you have finished shooting and how to manage post production.
Spotlight || Does Resolution Matter? || Geoff Boyle
In this episode we interviewed cinematographer Geoff Boyle, who talks about resolution and the perception of it's value.
My approach to lighting || Ben Smithard || Masterclass
In this unique episode, cinematographer Ben Smithard gives us an exclusive look at the lighting diagrams and lists that he has hand-drawn for his various film and tv productions, discussing his approach to lighting.
Why you should hire experienced crew || Geoff Boyle || Spotlight
In episode we talk to Geoff Boyle about why you should hire the most experienced crew possible and how this will help on your shoots.
What makes a cinematic image? || Spotlight
We asked top cinematographers at the BSC show and Micro Salon the big question: What makes a cinematic image?
Dick Pope on Mike Leigh || Working with the Director
In this episode we speak to Dick Pope about working with Mike Leigh and what experiences he has from being a close collaborator. How do they work together to create the finished product and what is the approach?
How to start in the film industry || Anthony Dod Mantle || Spotlight
We interviewed cinematographer Anthony Dod Mantle who is best known for his work on 127 hours, Rush, Slumdog Millionaire and 28 days later. In this episode we spoke about what it takes to start in the film industry and his past experiences.
The SFX Artist || Spielberg and Saving Private Ryan || Neil Corbould
We interviewed special effects expert Neil Corbould at CamerImage 2016. He is best known for his work on Gravity, Gladiator, Rogue One and Saving Private Ryan. In this episode he talks about his work on Saving Private Ryan and his role as a special effects artist and how he worked alongside Steven Spielberg.
Recent Cinematography Challenges - BSC Show 2017 || Spotlight
We asked BSC members what challenges they have faced on recent film projects. Discussions involve back projection screens, working in candlelight, budget restraints and working in trenches.
How do you choose your equipment? - BSC Expo 2017 || Spotlight
We asked top cinematographers at the BSC Expo about how they choose and select various equipment for their film shoots.
Miles Ahead and Don Cheadle || Roberto Schaefer || Case Study
We speak to Roberto Schaefer at CamerImage to discuss how he filmed Miles Ahead and his working relationship with Oscar nominated Don Cheadle.
How I approach cinematography || Steve Yedlin || Spotlight
We spoke to Steve Yedlin at CamerImage 2016 hot off the press after shooting the biggest blockbuster of 2017 - Star Wars Episode VIII. In this episode, he discusses his general approach and philosophy to cinematography and why choosing a specific camera and lens isn't necessarily the best approach for him.
Blockbuster camera and lens combinations || Michael Seresin || Spotlight
There is a huge variety of cameras and lenses available for big budget Hollywood productions. Michael Seresin discusses what has worked for him after recently filming Dawn/War for the Planet of the Apes and the new Jungle Book which will be released in 2018.
Cinematography needs to serve the story || Michael Chapman || Spotlight
We interviewed master cinematographer Michael Chapman at CamerImage 2016. The veteran is best known for his camerawork on The Godfather and Jaws, and as the cinematographer of the groundbreaking Scorsese classics Taxi Driver and Raging Bull. In this episode, he explains the importance of why cinematography needs to reflect on the story and why images are powerful.
Sean Bobbitt's Cinematography Influences || Spotlight
Sean Bobbitt shares what cinematographers have influenced him in the world of film, both past and modern.
Here are the people he mentions:
Billy Williams, Gordon Willis, Freddie Francis, Vilmos sigmund, Barry Ackroyd, Hoyte Van Hoytema, Adam Arkapaw
Cinematography Tips: Don't complicate lighting - Geoff Boyle
Introducing the first video brand in a new playlist called 'Cine School' - dedicated to giving you advice and knowledge from within the world of cinematography. Geoff Boyle explains how a complicated lighting set up is not necessarily the best.
Gladiator (2000) || Cinematography Case Study - John Mathieson
John Mathieson shares the secrets behind the cinematography of huge blockbuster epic Gladiator, his first collaboration with visionary director Ridley Scott.
Working with the Director || Haris Zambarloukos on Kenneth Branagh
Haris Zambarloukos discusses what he has learned from his collaboration with director Kenneth Branagh. They have worked on four films together: Sleuth (2007), Thor (2011), Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit (2014) and Cinderella (2015).
Masterclass || Gavin Finney - Testing your Camera and Lenses
Next in our 'masterclass' series, Gavin Finney discusses what to look out for when testing your camera and lenses in pre-production.
Case Study || John Mathieson - K-PAX (2001)
We have a look behind the scenes of cult film K-PAX, starring Kevin Spacey and Jeff Bridges.
Case Study || Lol Crawley - Utopia (2014)
In another addition to our 'Television Case Studies' Lol Crawley gives us an insight into the making of Season 2 of British cult smash hit Utopia. We discuss how you interpret the directors vision and build upon a visual style that has already been set in the first season.
Working with the Director || Ed Lachman on Todd Haynes
In the latest episode of 'Working with the Director' Ed Lachman tells us some of the working practices he shares with long time collaborator Todd Haynes, starting with Far From Heaven in 2002 and most recently Carol (2015).
Case Study || Fabian Wagner - Game of Thrones
As we finish Season 6 of the biggest television show in the world, Fabian Wagner shares with us his techniques he used for his episodes in Season 4 and 5 of the show. For 'Hardhome' in Season 5, Episode 8 he was nominated for his second Creative Arts Emmy and he has filmed episodes 9 and 10 on the latest season.
How I started in the Industry || Haris Zambarloukos
Haris Zambarloukos (Thor, Locke, Mamma Mia, Cinderella) tells us about his early career, training to be a cinematographer and being mentored by Conrad Hall (American Beauty, Road to Perdition, A Civil Action).
Case Study || John Mathieson - X Men: First Class (2011)
In the build up to the release of X-Men: Apocalypse, we share our interview with John Mathieson who talks to us about the various special effects shots used on X-Men: First Class. From practical effects such as Jennifer Lawrence's blue skin and scales to CGI and set builds.
Case Study || Fabian Wagner - Sherlock (2012)
We welcome Fabian Wagner to our cinematography series. In this case study, we speak to Wagner about working on Series 2 of the critically acclaimed British television show Sherlock.
Working with the Director || John Mathieson on Ridley Scott
In this series, we talk to cinematographers about their experiences working with renowned directors. Mathieson has 5 collaborations with visionary director Ridley Scott: Gladiator (2000); Hannibal (2001); Matchstick Men (2003); Kingdom of Heaven (2005) and Robin Hood (2010).
Working with the Director || Sean Bobbitt on Steve McQueen
In this series, we talk to cinematographers about their experiences working with renowned directors. Sean Bobbitt has worked with director Steve McQueen on three feature collaborations: Hunger (2008), Shame (2011) and 12 Years a Slave (2013). The pair started working on McQueen's early art installations and progressed into their feature careers.
Masterclass || John Mathieson - Choosing Lenses (Part 2) || Anamorphic and Spherical
John Mathieson continues to talk about choosing lenses for certain films. In this video he focuses on describing the look and characteristics of anamorphic and spherical lenses.
Masterclass || John Mathieson - Choosing Lenses (Part 1)
John Mathieson takes us through some of his films and talks us through what lens choices he made and why. These are the films he covers:
Man from U.N.C.L.E.
Phantom of the Opera
Case Study || Sean Bobbitt - Hunger (2008)
In this case study, Sean Bobbitt discusses the challenges of replicating the exact environment where Bobby Sands was imprisoned, in his first feature collaboration with director Steve McQueen.
Filmed with a Sony FS100 and Cooke Mini S4/i Lenses.
Masterclass || Phil Meheux: Shooting car chases
Phil Meheux walks us through the specifics of shooting film car chases, referencing his two Bond films. In this video, he gives a crash course on how to shoot a car scene and shows how the team shot a tank chase in Goldeneye (1995) and created the infamous crash scene with the Aston Martin DBS in Casino Royale (2006).
Sean Bobbitt: Place Beyond the Pines (2012) Case Study
An in depth discussion about how the opening long shot was created in Cianfrance's 'Place Beyond the Pines' (2012), starring Ryan Gosling and Bradley Cooper. Discussions involve securing a big location before shooting, working with top Hollywood stars and the pre-production and methodical approach to a shoot.
Masterclass || John Mathieson - Filming Battle Scenes with Ridley Scott
Welcome to our masterclass series. In this video, John Mathieson retrospectively shares his tips and advice for shooting battle scenes on big budget films.
This discussion is highlighted by looking at three collaborations with visionary director Ridley Scott: Gladiator (2000) Robin Hood (2011) and Kingdom of Heaven (2005).
Lol Crawley: Mandela - Long Walk to Freedom (2013) Case Study
Lol Crawley talks about the challenges he faced when working on location in the harsh South African sunlight on 'Mandela - Long Walk to Freedom'. Topics include working with set designers, the importance of maintaining accurate history and his method to shooting in particular indoor and outdoor locations.
Steven Spielberg: Ready Player One & Bridge of Spies || Adam Stockhausen || Spotlight
This week we talk to Adam Stockhausen about working with Steven Spielberg on the films Ready Player One and Bridge of Spies. He also tells us about the challenges of being a production designer and how is job is affected by motion capture.
Vittorio Storaro || Cinematography as Art
Master cinematographer Vittorio Storaro shares his philosophy behind how cinematography relates to other art forms and how his approach towards light and colour changed after filming Apocalypse Now.
The Shape of Water || Dan Laustsen || Case Study
This week we welcome Dan Laustsen to the channel. In this episode he talks to us about his work on The Shape of Water, and what it was like working with Guillermo del Toro and how he uses a range of colours.
The cinematography behind Stranger Things and Mr Robot || Tod Campbell || Case Study
The COTV Christmas treat: We interviewed Tod Campbell at Camerimage 2017 where we asked him about his involvement with two of the biggest shows in the world: Mr. Robot and Stranger Things. He talks about how he achieves the style of the tv shows through lighting and composition.
How did you approach the cinematography in 'Mr Robot'?
"I changed the look a little bit every season, I think the photography can evolve since the story does."
How did you approach the cinematography in 'Stranger Things'?
Behind the Commercial: Smirnoff || Autumn Durald || Spotlight
This week Autumn Durald gives us a fascinating technical behind the scenes look of the Smirnoff commercial featuring Chrissy Teigen. What did she do to achieve the atmospheric oner and product shot?
Woody Allen || Autumn Durald || Deconstructing Cinematography
This week we welcome Autumn Durald to the channel where she talks about her inspiration from Woody Allen and breaks down some of the shots from Hannah and Her Sisters and Manhattan.
Arri: Celebrating 100 Years || Jorg Pohlman || Industry Innovators
In this episode we welcome the Managing Director of ARRI, Jorg Pohlman, who talks to use about the history of ARRI, it's founders and what has happened over the last 100 years of the company.
Case Study || Marley || Mike Eley
In this episode Mike Eley shares his knowledge on the making of the documentary Marley, he explains how the documentary was made and how Bob Marley inspired him during the filming.
Researching the Film/Lighting References || Ben Smithard || Spotlight
In this episode Ben Smithard shows us how he prepares for a film and what research he does to get the look of the film. He shows us the research he has accumulated and how it influenced his cinematography.
Deconstructing Cinematography || Blade Runner || Geoff Boyle/Nic Knowland
Here we have Geoff Boyle and Nic Knowland taking a look at Blade Runner. Deconstructing the film and some of their favourite shots.
Spotlight || Camerimage || Cinematography Festival
In this episode we see a round up of the events that happened at Camerimage, and talk to top cinematographers about the whole festival and what sort of things it has to offer.
Spotlight || Lighting: Practical sources || Bradford Young
In this episode Bradford Young talks about practical lighting sources and gives tips on different techniques of using them and how he has used them in the past.
How to manage Post Production (Part 2) || The Film Production Process
In this episode we continue from part 1, this episode includes top cinematographers discussing what happens when you have finished shooting and how to manage post production.
Digital Sensors and Dynamic Range (Part 2) || Spotlight || Geoff Boyle
In this episode we continue to talk to Geoff Boyle about digital sensors and dynamic range and reveals the essential information behind digital sensors and explains how information is being processed by your camera.
Deconstructing Cinematography || Odd Man Out || Ben Smithard (Part 1)
The latest in our 'Deconstructing Cinematography' series features Ben Smithard examining the Carol Reed British film noir Odd Man Out (1947). Stay tuned for Part 2 in which Smithard compares cult classic Sexy Beast (2000).
John Lennon - Imagine || Nik Knowland || Case Study
This week's episode introduces a new cinematographer, Nic Knowland. Nic shares his experience about working on the music video Imagine for John Lennon.
Deconstructing Cinematography || The Ipcress File || Mike Eley
We welcome cinematographer Mike Eley BSC to Cooke Optics TV in the first of our 'Deconstructing Cinematography' series, in which DOP's breakdown and dissect some of their favourite films
Marco Polo || Case Study || Romain Lacourbas
In episode we talk to Romain Lacourbas about the TV show Marco Polo, Romain has worked on such movies as Taken 2, The November Man and Colombiana. Delve into the process of choosing cameras and lens and other parts of the production process of Marco Polo and why they did what they did.
The VFX Artist: Practical Effects and Christopher Nolan || Spotlight
Mark H Weingartner has worked with practical effects on an incredible array of films with many directors including Dunkirk, The Dark Knight trilogy, Inception, Interstellar and The Hunger Games. He talks about how important practical effects are in films with effects and how doing them in camera is more effective.
What is the future of lighting? || Geoff Boyle || Spotlight
Spotlighting a big debate in filmmaking right now - do you use tungsten or LED lighting? Geoff Boyle discusses how he has benefitted from using LED lights in his recent productions and how they have improved over the years.
How to Create Texture in Digital Film || Philippe Ros || Spotlight
Speaking with French cinematographer Philippe Ros, we discuss his process and thoughts of how to create texture in digital. Texture is something we see very regularly when something is shot on film, but how does this work with pixels?
Michael Seresin on Cinematography || Spotlight
We interviewed Cinematographer Michael Seresin, best known for his work on Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban, Dawn of the Planet of the Apes, Jungle book and many more. In this episode we asked him various questions about cinematography on his own projects.
Chapman on Martin Scorsese || Working with the Director
We interviewed Michael Chapman at CamerImage 2016 to discuss his work. In this interview, he tells us how he worked with Scorsese on Taxi Driver, The Last Waltz and how he used a flash gun in the opening credits of Raging Bull.
Camera and lens choices for stop-motion || Dave-Alex Riddett || Spotlight
Dave-Alex Riddett discusses Aardman's conversion from film to Digital and the decisions behind how they chose their equipment.
Directors on cinematographers || Michael Apted || Spotlight
Introducing our first director to the Cooke Optics TV channel, the prolific and renowned Michael Apted, director of The World is not Enough, Gorillas in the Mist and Gorky Park. He discusses his approach towards working with cinematographers and how he gains a visual insight into the film in pre-production.
Working with anamorphic lenses || Markus Förderer || Spotlight
We spoke to Markus Forderer at CamerImage 2016 to discuss his experience in using anamorphic lenses, particularly with digital cameras.
What is the future of resolution and lenses? || Paul Cameron || Spotlight
We spoke to Paul Cameron (Man on Fire, Deja Vu, Westworld) about the big questions surrounding modern cinematography.
The advantages of young cinematographers || Spotlight
We interviewed top DP's Paul Cameron, Roberto Schaefer, Michael Seresin and Anthony Dod Mantle to find out whether there are is any advantage of being a young cinematographer in a 21st century film industry. They also discuss ways in which students can gain experience and how you can easily produce a cinematic image.
T2: Trainspotting exclusive with cinematographer Anthony Dod Mantle || Spotlight
Fresh from CamerImage 2016, Cooke Optics TV interviewed Anthony Dod Mantle about the highly anticipated sequel to the 1996 classic Trainspotting, reuniting the original cast and directed by Danny Boyle, a frequent collaborator of Dod Mantle's.
How do cinematographers work with actors? || The Film Production Process
A question often overlooked in the world of cinematography. We discuss the politics and diplomacy of the film set, including roles and responsibilities on set, and some of the best approaches for blocking and rehearsals.
How To Plan Your Film Production || The Film Production Process
Knowing how to work with your crew to plan your production day is essential knowledge. Next in our 'Film Production Process' series, cinematographers Gavin Finney, Fabian Wagner and Phil Meheux discuss their working practises when in production.
Cinematographers: Advice on how to get into the Film Industry || Spotlight - Geoff Boyle
Geoff Boyle is an experienced cinematographer who has worked in television, features and commercials for over 30 years. We welcome him to Cooke Optics TV where he gives his advice to aspiring cinematographers and film students.
Spotlight || The Documentary Cinematographer
Sean Bobbitt and Rodney Charters share some of the advantages that documentary cinematographers have on film sets.
Spotlight || Film vs Digital: The Big Debate
The spotlight we have all been waiting for. Cooke Optics TV shares interviews with world renowned cinematographers to get their insights on how the filmmaking process has changed from the early days of film to the introduction and improvement of digital processes.
Masterclass || Dave Alex Riddett - Lighting stop-motion at Aardman Animations
We present a new exciting addition to Cooke Optics TV, looking at the lighting process behind one of the world's biggest animation studios, Aardman Animations. Famous for producing films such as Wallace and Gromit, Shaun the Sheep and Creature Comforts, cinematographer Dave Alex Riddett shows us how he lights various productions.
Pre Production Process || Sets & Locations
Welcome to our second installment in our 'Film Production Process' series. In this masterclass, we discuss what the cinematographers' involvement is with choosing sets and locations, and how working with the production team in advance achieves the best results in production.
Masterclass || Gavin Finney - Working with Candlelight
In this in-depth episode, Gavin Finney shares some of his secrets of how he worked with candlelight on the BAFTA award winning Wolf Hall. One not to miss!
Spotlight || Mathieson and Charters: Has the Role of the Cinematographer Changed?
Following on from our spotlight 'What is the Role of the Cinematographer' experienced cinematographers Mathieson and Charters discuss whether they think the role has changed during their years in the industry, especially with the advent of digital..
The Production Process || Pre-Production (Part 1)
Welcome to the first in our in-depth series looking at the entire production process of the cinematographer. We start with the importance of pre-production, and analyse the key stages that are necessary when achieving a good workflow.
In this episode we have shared the experiences and knowledge of John De Borman, Phil Meheux, Sean Bobbitt, John Mathieson, Ed Lachman, Gavin Finney, Fabian Wagner and Haris Zambarloukos.
Spotlight || What is the role of the Cinematographer?
We ask some of the best cinematographers working today what they believe is the role of the cinematographer.
Case Study || Sean Bobbitt - Single Takes and 12 Years a Slave
Sean Bobbitt speaks about how the team filmed a period film in Louisiana that dealt with a serious subject matter. 12 Years a Slave won three Oscars, including 'Best Picture' 'Best Supporting Actress' and 'Best Adapted Screenplay'. We also explore the use of one takes throughout Sean Bobbitt's film career.
Case Study || John de Borman - The Full Monty (1997)
John de Borman discusses the story behind the critically and commercially successful hit The Full Monty (1997), including the tough production schedule and working with a tight budget.
Case Study || Phil Meheux - The Long Good Friday (1980)
Phil Meheux shows how he managed to film the seminal British gangster flick 'The Long Good Friday' whilst working on a low budget.
Exclusive* Case Study || Ed Lachman - Carol (2015)
Exclusive to Cooke TV, Ed Lachman gives us an insightful look at how he filmed 'Carol' for which he is Oscar and BAFTA nominated this year. He discusses the decision to shoot on 16mm film, researching street photographers with collaborator Todd Haynes and key lighting decisions he used on the film.
Case Study || Lol Crawley - Four Lions (2010)
Lol Crawley describes the antics that went on behind the scenes for British smash hit Four Lions (2010), working with Chris Morris to create a documentary look for the film.
Working with the Director || John de Borman on Dustin Hoffman
In this series, we talk to cinematographers about their experiences working with renowned directors. John de Borman initially worked with Dustin Hoffman on Last Chance Harvey (2008) and again on Quartet (2012); he talks about how Hoffman was approached for their most recent collaboration and his working style.
Masterclass || John de Borman - Composition & Framing
John de Borman takes us through his idea of composition and framing in films. Seeing the meaning behind the characters, scene or location and how to portray these elements in a 'simple' way. We use examples from 'An Education', 'Made in Dagenham', 'If I stay', 'Quartet' and 'The Full Monty'.
Sean Bobbitt: Shame (2011) Case Study
Sean Bobbitt B.S.C talks us through how the team crafted one of the most memorable scenes from Steve McQueen's second feature. Giving specifics about what lights they used in the scene, working with set designers and the importance of colour grading.
Haris Zambarloukos - Locke (2013) Case Study
The challenges of shooting car scenes, multi-camera set ups and working through the entire script every night of the shoot. Zambarloukos walks us through how the team created special lighting rigs that could be manipulated, working with street lights and comparing natural and artificial lighting effects.
Haris Zambarloukos: Thor (2011) Case Study
Haris Zambarloukos gives a technical breakdown of how the Jotunheim fight scene was made in Branagh's 'Thor' (2011). Topics include computer-generated environments, working with scale, lighting rigs and various camera challenges in a new digital age.